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Emergency Plan

Written plans are a component of the Emergency Management programs, They should reflect the community, or organizations measure that are in place to deal with risk, and provide continuity where turnover is high. They are valuable training tools that provide guidance for the development of other parts of the program. (Canton, 2007, p. 196)

Submitted by in Mar 2013

Comments (11)

  1. Well stated but a bit over-generalized. An EOP can be defined as a document maintained by various jurisdictional levels describing the plan for responding to a wide variety of potential hazards. The planning process is all about stakeholders bringing their resources and strengths to the table to develop and reinforce a jurisdiction’s emergency management and homeland security programs. Properly developed, supported, and executed operational plans are a direct result of an active and evolving program. The EOP describes actions to be taken in response to natural, manmade, or technological hazards, detailing the tasks to be performed by specific organizational elements at projected times and places based on established objectives, assumptions, and assessment of capabilities.
    The Organization and Assignment of Responsibilities section specifies reporting relationships and lines of authority for an emergency response. In addition, this section is where a jurisdiction discusses the response organizing option that it uses for emergency management – ESF, or agency and department, or functional areas of ICS/NIMS, or a hybrid. Authorities and References. This section cites: • The legal bases for emergency operations and activities, including: laws, statutes, ordinances, executive orders, regulations, formal agreements, and predelegation of emergency authorities. This may be the determining factor of your jurisdictions legal liability. Agreement can be found in the following statements; 1)"They should reflect the community, or organizations measure that are in place to deal with risk", 2) "They are valuable training tools that provide guidance for the development of other parts of the program". However, many times a disconnect is discovered from what the magnitude of hazards and risks are described in relation to the 'TRAINING-ANNEX' to the NIMSCAST spreadsheets. The categories for each level of training have been simplified from those that were in the Five-Year NIMS Training Plan. Training recommendations are now based upon the level of an incident’s complexity (Complexity Guide found on pages 16-17 of the NIMS Training Program) that a person may become involved in, from Type 1 to Type 5. Organizations should consider the complexity of incidents that their jurisdictions are most likely to face and tailor the NIMS training for their personnel to meet those needs. Further, it must be noted that under the prior NIMS FIVE-YEAR TRAINING PLAN that there were posted Fiscal-Year due dates for a progressive completion of each item for each year. Hence, it is contrary for a jurisdiction to hold itself out as having what appears to be a great plan but those plans might be undermined by failure to develop the capabilities described within the same plan.
    in Mar 2013
    1. Community Member Idea Submitter
      NIM (the National Incident Management System) mandates the use of the ICS system. ICS originated in response to a series of wildfires in Southern California, that effected jurisdiction at Federal, State, and Local levels simultaneously. FIRESCOPE (Firefighting Resources of Southern California Organized for Potential Emergencies) was intent to develop an operating system that allows management by objective, agency autonomy, unit integrity, and functional clarity (Canton, 2007).
      I agree that the ICS is the best practice; it allows for response through the coordination of resource management, that expands to size of the disaster and coordinates the response effort across jurisdictional line.
      Ultimately, the response must involve the entire community, and coordination must address rescue, sheltering, medical services, mitigation, and recovery (Canton, 2007).
      in Mar 2013
  2. Community Member Idea Submitter
    The first step in planning is a holistic approach that does not place planning in a time frame, but inter links with a continuum that began before the disaster, and extend into the recovery. (Canton, 2007, p. 198) The plan should follow a sequence based on the needs it addresses the same, as Maslow’s Hierarchy of human needs base on a management concept
    in Mar 2013
  3. Community Member Idea Submitter
    The Farm Service Agency provides assistance for natural disaster losses, resulting from drought, flood, fire, freeze, tornadoes, pest infestation, and other calamities. USDA's Farm Service Agency (FSA) provides emergency loans to help producers recover from production and physical losses due to drought, flooding, other natural disasters, or quarantine (USDA). If this program was a grant program rather than a loan program it could be of more assistance to the Country and world food supply. FSA makes direct and guaranteed farm ownership (FO) and operating loans (OL) to family-size farmers and ranchers who cannot obtain commercial credit from a bank, Farm Credit System institution, or other lender. FSA loans can be used to purchase land, livestock, equipment, feed, seed, and supplies. Our loans can also be used to construct buildings or make farm improvements:

    Benefits Checkup quickly finds federal, state, and private benefit programs available to help you save money on prescription drugs, health care, meals, utilities, taxes, and more. Many older people need help paying for prescription drugs, health care, utilities, and other basic needs. Ironically, millions of older Americans especially those with limited incomes are eligible for but not receiving benefits from existing federal, state, and local programs. Ranging from heating and energy assistance to prescription savings programs to income supplements, there are many public programs available to seniors in need if they only knew about them and how to apply for them (Aging). This program could be placed in DRC (Disaster Recovery Centers) to aid seniors in finding assistance with need to aid in recovery and long-term assistance. The organization assists with the Following:
    • Prescription drugs
    • Nutrition (including Supplemental Nutrition Assistance (SNAP)/Food Stamps)
    • Energy assistance
    • Financial
    • Legal
    • Health care
    • Social Security
    • Housing
    • In-home services
    • Tax relief
    • Transportation
    • Educational assistance
    • Employment
    • Volunteer services

    Works Cited
    Aging, N. C. BenifitsCheckUp.
    Beck, T. (2005, April). Learning Lessons from Disaster Recovery: The Case of Bangladesh. WORKING PAPER SERIES NO. 11 World Bank .
    John Telford, M. A. (2004, June). Learning Lessons from Disaster Recovery: The Case of Honduras. WORKING PAPER SERIES NO. 8 World Bank .
    Rubin, C. (1985). The Community Recovery Process in the United States after a Major Natural Disaster. International Journal of Mass Emergencies and Disasters , 10-28.
    Shenot, C. (2007, April). Local Government Professionals Team Up on Disaster Recovery. Public Management (00333611); Apr2007, , pp. Vol. 89 Issue 3, p6-12, 7p.
    USDA, F. Farm Loan Programs. Washington,DC: USDA,FSA.
    in Mar 2013
  4. Community Member Idea Submitter
    Get funding to establish Work Groups, Stakeholders, Steering Committee, and Policy Committee; establish Vision Statement and Mission Statements, Strategy, Goals, Objectives, and Action plans. (Canton, 2007)
    All the groups are needed to accomplish the mission and the funding is needed to support the effort, run and maintain accomplishments or to improve.
    Establishing the organization is different from the important skills; so in this aspect I believe that the Vision Statement, Mission Statement and Strategic Plan are the three most important. They give purpose, unification and a plan to accomplish the goals. Yet still; getting the funding to put these plans in action has to be at the top of the list.
    The coordination of resources and agencies to meet the needs of the community effort are key in all aspects of the relief effort, as stated in all phase of the course outline in each of the references in the u02d1 discussion. All three Identify mitigation, response, recovery and preparedness, which are accomplished through the coordinated effort.

    Bibliography & Citations:

    Canton, L. G. (2007). Emergency Mangement Concepts and Strategies for effective Programs. Hoboken,New Jersey: John Wiley & Sons Inc.
    http://www.training.fema.gov/EMIweb/edu/collegelist/ Retrieved 1/11/11
    http://www.training.fema.gov/EMIweb/edu/collegelist/EMMasterLevel/ Retrieved 1/11/11
    in Mar 2013
  5. Community Member Idea Submitter
    Disaster preparedness is also distributed to the Private sector through the Ad Council and other VOADs; there are add-ons to web sites and an annual preparedness month; September. We could increase the campaigns by increasing publication through media out lets and add subscriptions. I don’t think it is cost effective. Disaster will still happen and people will still be effected. If we can maintain a level of public saturation with information and increase presentation to school children, in an effort to get them to go home and tell their parents about being prepared; we have families think and working toward a family disaster plan compliance.

    If we pass an ordinance stating that all community block parties go through the local preparedness council, or personnel. We get information to more households. If we have at these block parties the taken for granted exercises such as practice stop drop and role, call 911, or crawl to a window to get out of ground level bldgs, or hang a sheet from the balcony to inform the fire dept that people are at the window the sheet is hanging out, we may get more information to people and save a few lives.

    If families or community groups that put on these events have computers, internet access and printers; then they can save the government money by printing their own brochures. Candidates for public offices could pass out the literature during their campaigns while soliciting votes.

    Are You Ready? An In-depth Guide to Citizen Preparedness (IS-22) is FEMA’s most comprehensive source on individual, family, and community preparedness. The guide has been revised, updated, and enhanced in August 2004 to provide the public with the most current and up-to-date disaster preparedness information available. (FEMA, 2004)
    Also available is the Are You Ready? Facilitator Guide (IS-22FG). The Facilitator Guide is a tool for those interested in delivering Are You Ready? content in a small group or classroom setting. The Facilitator Guide is an easy to use manual that has instruction modules for adults, older children, and younger children. A resource CD is packaged with the Facilitator Guide that contains customizable presentation materials, sample-training plans, and other disaster preparedness education resources. (FEMA, 2004)

    Copies of Are You Ready? and the Facilitator Guide are available through the FEMA publications warehouse (1.800.480.2520). For large quantities, your organization may reprint the publication. Please visit our reprint page for more information. (FEMA, 2004)

    Undates and alerts can be subscribed to by providing an e-mail address at https://public.govdelivery.com/accounts/USDHSRC/subscriber/new For questions about Are You Ready? Please email David.Larimer@dhs.gov of FEMA's Community and Family Preparedness program. (FEMA, 2004)


    Works Cited
    FEMA. (2004). Are You Ready? An In-depth Guide to Citizen Preparedness IS-22. DC: GSA.
    in Mar 2013
  6. Community Member Idea Submitter
    A Multi Agency Coordinating System (MACS) needs to be used to communicate with different ICS organizations and field operation units. The information that needs to be communicated from the field to the ICS should be about resources needed by the incident commander.
    The community command structure shows the distinctions between command and control and coordination using MACS (Canton, 2007):

    There is a need for multiple layers of communication between the organizations the Emergency Management and Response Information Sharing and Analysis Center (EMR-ISAC) has four criteria for EOCs (Canton, 2007):
    Location: multiple locations that are as hazard free as possible.
    Redundancy: multiple mean of communicating, powering, and operating at all locations; they should all be self reliant and standing.
    Self-Sufficiency: capable of operating alone for several days, a minimum 72 hours without outside assistance, but the longest power outage and/or closer due to local re-occurring hazard.
    All form of communication that are available should be maintained, and any advances in technology explored for use by the organization. Line of communication should be set up and maintained with all jurisdictions, vendor, and mutual aid agreements maintained renewed and updated. No reliance on one form of public address system, multiple media outlets to inform the public (Joseph Straw, 2011).

    Works Cited
    Canton, L. G. (2007). Emergency Mangement Concepts and Strategies for effective Programs. Hoboken,New Jersey: John Wiley & Sons Inc.
    Joseph Straw, G. S. (2011, Feb). How Social Web Sites Help Save Lives. Security Management (ASIS International) , pp. 36-43.
    in Mar 2013
  7. Community Member Idea Submitter
    To know the future you have to know what the past is of Emergency Management. Emergency Management started out as Civil Defense, not only in this country, but also in Europe. As far back as you might look, you can find Civil Defense projects. Mossad, for example, with the Jews during the raids by the Romans; it was a civil defense procedure that they went up on the top of the Mesa, and were able to provide water and food for those people (Higher education and the professionalization of emergency management [video]. , August 20,2007).
    Until the mid 1980’s EM were retired military officers, who because of their military experience were regarded as qualified to handle the extreme situations that occur in emergencies. The Primary concern was, reduction of the losses from nuclear war. The shift to an emphasis on natural hazards began in the mid 1970s. In 1979, the Federal Emergency Management Agency was formed, and brought in the present day comprehensive emergency management (Webber, 1998).
    Emergency Management has change in that we now have Emergency Managers gaining influence in city government, personal computers being widely adopted, local emergency management is becoming more important relative to State, and Regional Domains; there is formal credentials related to the occupation (Webber, 1998).
    What we are looking at now in the future of Emergency Management is not so much the response phase but how do you prevent those incidents from occurring. We want to end the cycle. Obviously, you cannot stop a tornado and you cannot stop a hurricane, but you certainly can provide the means for shelter, people’s homes, building codes that are the higher standard than what we have currently, that will prevent a loss not only of property; but also a loss of life. Therefore, the future from what I see; is the ability for us to be able to look at the holistic approach. How we would deal with not only those first responders; but how do we deal with the building code, individuals, the zoning people, the floodplain managers, and how can we bring all these things together to play, to try and prevent those incidents from occurring (Higher education and the professionalization of emergency management [video]. , August 20,2007).
    The leadership -- what you have to do is set up a process by which you can integrate all the first responders, and that is how we have developed our program, our training center, our degree program. We have defined Emergency Management into people, who have the ability to integrate the first responders and the community. If the community does not respond appropriately in an emergency, I do not care what we do, it will not work (Higher education and the professionalization of emergency management [video]. , August 20,2007).
    Emergency Management role will continue to expand, and become in effect integrated with the other critical functions that government agencies, and private sector firms actually carry out. Emergency Management will mature and sustain the emphasis we have had over the past three decades, at least where we are an All-Hazards focus, and not strictly a single focus. Homeland Security sounds a lot like Civil Defense, and that was a single focus program on nuclear attack, and we are wavy on that now; we need to keep our focus on All-Hazards. We need to build in risk reduction measures, codes and stronger structures, planning side of things (Higher education and the professionalization of emergency management [video]. , August 20,2007).
    Emergency management can ensure its place in the future if it focuses on policies, programs, and activities that improve the safety and social and economic security of individuals, institutions, and communities. To do this, emergency management must focus more effort in promoting and implementing mitigation (Bullock, 2003). Attention to short- and long-term recovery issues will again help ensure that the disruption and further losses caused by disasters do not extend into the future (Tierney, 2007).

    Works Cited
    Bullock, J. (2003). The Future of Emergency Management.". Washington,DC: George Washington University.
    Canton, L. G. (2007). Emergency Mangement Concepts and Strategies for effective Programs. Hoboken,New Jersey: John Wiley & Sons Inc.
    E, M. O. (2003, June 13). The Emergency Manager of the Future. T H E N A T I O N A L A C A D E M I E S .
    (August 20,2007). Higher education and the professionalization of emergency management [video]. . from http://training.fema.gov/.
    Tierney, K. J. (2007). Testimony on Needed Emergency Management Reforms. Journal of Homeland Security & Emergency Management; , pp. Vol. 4 Issue 3, p1-17, 17p.
    Webber, E. G. (1998). Internet and Emergency Management: Prospects for the Future. International Journal of Mass Emergencies and Disasters , Vol 16 No. 1, pp 52- 72.
    in Mar 2013
  8. I agree, but I don't think many people would disagree with having a plan, especially a good one that takes all those things into account.
    in Mar 2013
    1. Community Member Idea Submitter
      There is no one size fits all, it has to be written based on the need of the organization, with infancies on the area, crime reports, and threats.
      in Mar 2013
  9. I've been a Contract Security Officer for over twenty-five years. This profession has horrible turnover on the ground. Written emergency operations plans are vital for security not only to know how they are required to respond, but for supervisors to understand what level of hazard training will be needed for which Hazards; criminal justice-, materials-, bio- (think elementary school), fire-, etc. Security officers are put at risk as are those they watch and protect due to lack of written EOP.
    in Mar 2013

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