Set a requirement for other preparedness funding programs (e.g. UASI, EPMG) that schools, colleges and universities must be participants in planning, training and exercises. In some jurisdictions the integration of institutions of higher education (IHEs) into local preparedness is non-existent or unidirectional. Many IHEs have their own police departments and have well-developed emergency management programs, but may struggle to get full cooperation from local officials responsible for emergency planning. Participation in the planning is more important than having written plans.